SMARTIFICATION IN MARITIME TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRY
According to international investigations, the emergence of recession and its escalation in the maritime transport industry which has been problematic lately is the result of several factors in the field of container transportation. The first factor can be the emergence of Ultra Large container ships in the shipping industry.
BY: Ali Poormand Chief Engineer, Master of Ship Structural Engineering
Two major aims were considered in this plan; First, to maximize the scale saving in size and capacity of the ship and then to save the fuel consumption. This leading action was followed by the world’s top container shipping lines such as MSC, GM, CMA and then other world’s best container lines also turned to this procedure to maintain their position and competitiveness in the market. As it seems, the three mentioned big companies have planned to unite to centralize the market and taking up more shares of it by observing and forecasting the market’s process. As a result, the second affecting factor in the transportation industry recession was brought another wave of evolution which formed shipping unions. The third factor was along with the failure to meet the expected economic growth in the world. The significant factors in the lack of economic growth include: low economic growth in China, having the world trade overshadowed by the economic conservative flows in developed countries including Britain and the United States which have risen up to accept the challenge of globalization of the economy and regional and global treaties. Today, the competitive advantages should not be sought through technologies related to improvements in factors such as saving scale in ship capacity or saving fuel consumption. Applying new technologies, Smartification of different shipping operational systems, concentration on smart transportation equipment (e.g. smart containers equipped to smart seal systems, tracking with facilities like GPS, temperature measuring, detecting people entering and leaving containers, change in the business models, attempting to enter the international trading relations, partial or full replacement of current conventional marine fuels with lowpriced, renewable pure energy carriers are some of innovative solutions in future. Significant Axes in Smartization of Maritime Transportation Industry
1. Application of smart maritime systems in following areas:
Control of the frontier and maritime security (utilizing CCTV and night visions with warning alarm systems) - Rescue Operations - Inspection of marine structures and installations (utilizing remote control submarines for underwater inspections and also smart submarines for inspecting inside the pipes and etc.) - Marine telecommunication - Marine discovery Oceanography - Environment and Fisheries (e.g. utilizing special software to estimate the route of oil pollution spread or the path of the fish
2. Architecting and designing smart vessels
Architecting, sorting, and stimulating integrated operations (Fluid integrated analysis of the performance of various components in a vessel and the possibility of investigating their interactional outcomes for instance analysis of the effect of ducts used around the propellers on the ship operation or Smartization of loading the vessels or changing the trim of the vessel in various climates in order to increase the efficiency or reduce the fuel consumption and speeding up) - Hydrodynamics (Optimal design of the hull considering effective parameters to reach the highest speed and lowest fuel consumption applying smart designing algorithms) - Structure (Optimal structural design of vessels to reduce the weight and increase strength and durability utilizing smart design algorithms and predicting future structural conditions by analyzing information received from smart sensors) - Dynamic modeling and situation control (Utilizing advanced software, it is possible to create mathematical models for dynamic analysis of structures and as a result investigation of equilibrium and control status of structures as mathematical models) - Propulsion systems and energy sources (Optimal management in the production and distribution of electric power and increased utility from hybrid systems) - Transmission and telecommunication - Hardware in smart marine systems
3. smartification in marine systems
Smart algorithms in steering, controlling, modelling, error tracking and inspecting - Smart communication network in vessels - Smart sensors in marine systems - Obstacle avoidance algorithms - Processing software - Views and plan of smart methods in marine systems
4. Smart systems and applicable subsystems in Smartization
Smart marine vessels - Marine robotic inspired by nature patterns - Targeting and sonar systems in smart systems - Deployment, recovery and rescue in smart systems - Information transfer and processing in smart systems - Minimizing in smart systems - Communication network in smart systems - Smart system support
• Questions that need to be answered in Smartization process: - What are potential drawbacks of digital ships? How does cyber threats enter and what solutions will be considered to fight them? - How will be human resource sorting in vessels with higher level of digitalization? Are they accepting this change and how will it change in regard with education and training? - Will digitalization be considered in designing new ships? If yes, how is it possible to encourage shipbuilding industry towards this matter? - Will Smartization in shipping increase security and efficiency? In the last few years, smartification phenomenon has been accelerated and digital transformation of assets and the information flow can be regarded as the biggest changes in the shipping industry in a way that besides automating existing processes and operations, has also had a positive impact on security and environmental performance. Ships are transforming to increasingly complex sensor hubs and data generators. On the other hand, improvement in satellite communications would ameliorate ship connectivity. This will also result in a significant increase in the amount of transmitted data at a lower cost. Therefore, Smartization in shipping results in more efficiency and security. Integrated Smart Ship Solution (ISSS) • One of the innovations in shipping Smartization is Integrated Smart Ship solution (ISSS). This system has been launched by Hyundai heavy industries group in South Korea. Smart Ship Solution (SSS) is a new generation as a service designed to integrate monitoring and control, and to increase the efficiency in operations and ship security management based on the application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Its ICT technology is capable of realizing economical and reliable navigation and management of ships. The intended goals in ISSS presented in figure (1) include: - Economical Operation - Propulsion system monitoring analysis - Remote maintenance - Power system monitoring analysis - Safe operation - Asset management service As an example, ISSS in “Asset management service” section means increasing performance at all levels through efficient risk management, maintenance costs commensurate with the useful life of different equipment, and also providing “asset management” solutions based on the customer needs. ISSS system includes numerous navigational methods that standardizes ways of navigation varying depending on levels of skills and experiences of navigators, collects and analyses real-time information on navigations, and thus will play a role in enhancing efficiency and safety of ships. Thus, it is predicted that this one of its kind solution cuts annual operating cost by 6%. Hyundai heavy industries group in in South Korea extended the smart ship technology for the first time in 2011 and applied the mentioned system for 300 ships. Supporting INTEGRICT technology which is Hyundai’s smart electric energy management system (figure 2), ISSS provides operators with an enormous amount of ship information. This information consists of: optimal navigation routes and navigation speed along with a slope status of the front and back hull of a ship that has a direct impact on the ship resistance and also fuel consumption. The solution allows safer and more efficient management of ships by collecting and analyzing energy data and monitoring status of engines and propellers. The ICT solution already completed field tests as well by being mounted on a 6500 PCTC and a 250,000 DWT very large ore carrier (VLOC). According to Clarkson Research in London, 6,500 ships are to be ordered globally for the next five years. Lloyd’s Register’s Director of Innovation, Strategy, Marine and Offshore Research believe that Hyundai shipbuilding in South Korea takes up a considerable share of shipbuilding market in the world. It is predicted that ISSS is to be installed on approximately 700 ships.